Proper home insulation is the most important part in conserving energy and keeping your utility bills lower. For average homes, use the below as a guide. Houses located in cold temperatures may need additional insulation to promote desired energy conservation.
Ceilings: R-30 (10″) Thermal resistance
Exterior walls, floors (over unheated areas): R-11 (3-1/2″)
When using your heating or cooling system, keep all windows and doors closed.
Windows allow heat to enter the home in summer and escape the home in winter, but heat transfer can be cut significantly—up to 40% to 50%—by switching to double-glazed windows. These windows have a sealed air space between the two panes of glass.
Get metal-frame or wood-frame storm windows for your home. That extra layer of glass and air cuts heat transfer tremendously, even if your single-glazed windows are high quality.
All entrance doors and windows should have weather-stripping and caulking. Also, if your home has small areas where outside air can filter in, plug them with plastic, caulking or weather-stripping.
Fireplaces should have tight-fitting dampers that can be shut when not in use.